The importance of intellectual
property in India is well established at all levels-
statutory, administrative and judicial. India ratified
the agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation
(WTO). This Agreement, inter-alia, contains an Agreement
on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) which came into force from 1st January 1995.
It lays down minimum standards for protection and enforcement
of intellectual property rights in member countries
which are required to promote effective and adequate
protection of intellectual property rights with a view
to reducing distortions and impediments to international
trade. The obligations under the TRIPS Agreement relate
to provision of minimum standard of protection within
the member countries legal systems and practices.
The Agreement provides for
norms and standards in respect of following areas
of intellectual property
- Trade Marks
- Geographical Indications
- Industrial Designs
The basic obligation in the area of patents is that, invention in all branches of technology whether products or processes shall be patentable if they meet the three tests of being new involving an inventive step and being capable of industrial application. In addition to the general security exemption which applied to the entire TRIPS Agreement, specific exclusions are permissible from the scope of patentability of inventions, the prevention of whose commercial exploitation is necessary to protect public order or morality, human, animal, plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. Further, members may also exclude from patentability of diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods of the treatment of human and animals and plants and animal other than micro-organisms and essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals. more...
The TRIPS Agreement provides for a minimum term of protection of 20 years counted from the date of filing.
India had already implemented its obligations under Articles 70.8 and 70.9 of TRIP Agreement.
To view Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIP) Agreement Click here
Acts related to Patents
The Patents Act, 1970
The Patents (amendment) Act, 1999
The Patents (amendment) Act, 2002
The Patents (amendment) Act, 2005
Rules pertaining to Patents
The Patents Rules 2003
The Patents (Amendment) Rules 2005
The Patents (Amendment) Rules 2006
Trade marks have been defined
as any sign, or any combination of signs capable
of distinguishing the goods or services of one
undertaking from those of other undertakings.
Such distinguishing marks constitute protectable
subject matter under the provisions of the TRIPS
Agreement. The Agreement provides that initial
registration and each renewal of registration
shall be for a term of not less than 7 years and
the registration shall be renewable indefinitely.
Compulsory licensing of trade marks is not permitted.
Keeping in view the changes
in trade and commercial practices, globalisation
of trade, need for simplification and harmonisation
of trade marks registration systems etc., a comprehensive
review of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act,
1958 was made and a Bill to repeal and replace
the 1958 Act has since been passed by Parliament
and notified in the Gazette on 30.12.1999. This
Act not only makes Trade Marks Law, TRIPS compatibility
but also harmonises it with international systems
and practices. Work is underway to bring the law
into force. more...
Trade Marks Acts
Trade Marks Act, 1999
New Elements in the Trade Marks Act, 1999